Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::database() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 19

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Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::library() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 112

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::library() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 113

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::library() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 114

Strict Standards: Declaration of dbTable::create() should be compatible with dbObject::create() in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/3rdparty/adodb/adodb-xmlschema03.inc.php on line 642

Strict Standards: Declaration of dbIndex::create() should be compatible with dbObject::create() in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/3rdparty/adodb/adodb-xmlschema03.inc.php on line 806

Strict Standards: Declaration of dbData::create() should be compatible with dbObject::create() in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/3rdparty/adodb/adodb-xmlschema03.inc.php on line 1051

Strict Standards: Declaration of dbQuerySet::create() should be compatible with dbObject::create() in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/3rdparty/adodb/adodb-xmlschema03.inc.php on line 1302

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::library() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 115

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::library() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 22

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::library() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 23

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::library() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 24

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::init() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/localization.php on line 40

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::isAvailable() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/localization.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::reset() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/localization.php on line 35

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::isAvailable() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/localization.php on line 23

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::setDomain() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/localization.php on line 24

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::isAvailable() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/localization.php on line 10

Strict Standards: Non-static method Localization::isAvailable() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/localization.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::library() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 25

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::library() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 26

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::library() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 27

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::library() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 28

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::library() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 29

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Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::library() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 32

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::library() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 33

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::library() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 34

Strict Standards: Declaration of BlockController::setupAndRun() should be compatible with Controller::setupAndRun() in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/block_controller.php on line 0

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::model() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 42

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::model() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 43

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Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::model() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 52

Strict Standards: Declaration of Page::add() should be compatible with Collection::add($data) in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/page.php on line 0

Strict Standards: Declaration of Page::duplicate() should be compatible with Collection::duplicate() in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/page.php on line 0

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::model() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 53

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::model() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 54

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::model() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 55

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::model() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 56

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::library() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 59

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::library() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 60

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::startup() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 61

Strict Standards: Non-static method View::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/config/theme_paths.php on line 4

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cookie - headers already sent by (output started at /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php:19) in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/startup/session.php on line 18

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cache limiter - headers already sent (output started at /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php:19) in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/startup/session.php on line 18

Strict Standards: Non-static method FileTypeList::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/config/file_types.php on line 15

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::getOrDefine() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/config/app.php on line 13

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 80

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::getOrDefine() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/config/app.php on line 21

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 80

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::getOrDefine() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/config/app.php on line 25

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 80

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::getOrDefine() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/config/app.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 80

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::getOrDefine() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/config/app.php on line 33

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 80

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::getOrDefine() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/config/app.php on line 38

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 80

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/config/app.php on line 43

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::getOrDefine() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/config/app.php on line 74

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 80

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::getOrDefine() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/config/app.php on line 90

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 80

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::getOrDefine() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/config/app.php on line 94

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 80

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::getOrDefine() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/config/app.php on line 99

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 80

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::getOrDefine() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/config/app.php on line 104

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 80

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::getOrDefine() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/config/app.php on line 108

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 80

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::getOrDefine() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/config/app.php on line 112

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 80

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::getOrDefine() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/config/app.php on line 116

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 80

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::getOrDefine() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/config/app.php on line 120

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 80

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::getOrDefine() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/config/app.php on line 124

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 80

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::getOrDefine() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/config/app.php on line 133

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 80

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/startup/debug_logging.php on line 3

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 204

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::package() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/startup/packages.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 204

Strict Standards: Non-static method User::checkUserForeverCookie() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/startup/user.php on line 14

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/page.php on line 15

Deprecated: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/page.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method Config::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/startup/maintenance_mode_check.php on line 5

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/config.php on line 49

Deprecated: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/user.php on line 83

Deprecated: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/user.php on line 234

Deprecated: Non-static method PermissionsCache::exists() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 212

Deprecated: Non-static method PermissionsCache::getIdentifier() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 15

Deprecated: Non-static method PermissionsProxy::get() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 218

Strict Standards: Non-static method PermissionsCache::exists() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 69

Strict Standards: Non-static method PermissionsCache::getIdentifier() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 15

Deprecated: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/user.php on line 83

Deprecated: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/user.php on line 234

Deprecated: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 491

Deprecated: Non-static method Loader::helper() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 516

Deprecated: Non-static method PermissionsCache::add() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 221

Deprecated: Non-static method PermissionsCache::getIdentifier() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 52

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/collection_version.php on line 41

Deprecated: Non-static method CollectionVersion::get() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/collection.php on line 33

Deprecated: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/collection_version.php on line 92

Strict Standards: Non-static method UserInfo::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/userinfo.php on line 37

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/userinfo.php on line 70

Strict Standards: Non-static method UserInfo::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/userinfo.php on line 37

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/userinfo.php on line 70

Deprecated: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/collection_version.php on line 114

Deprecated: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/collection_version.php on line 213

Deprecated: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/user.php on line 83

Deprecated: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/user.php on line 234

Deprecated: Non-static method PermissionsCache::exists() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 212

Deprecated: Non-static method PermissionsCache::getIdentifier() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 15

Deprecated: Non-static method PermissionsProxy::get() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 218

Deprecated: Non-static method PermissionsCache::add() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 221

Deprecated: Non-static method PermissionsCache::getIdentifier() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/permissions.php on line 52

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::helper() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/startup/process.php on line 62

Strict Standards: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 188

Deprecated: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/user.php on line 83

Deprecated: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/user.php on line 234

Deprecated: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/user.php on line 83

Deprecated: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/user.php on line 234

Deprecated: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/user.php on line 155

Strict Standards: Non-static method Events::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/events.php on line 126

Strict Standards: Non-static method View::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php on line 200

Deprecated: Non-static method Loader::controller() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/view.php on line 573

Deprecated: Non-static method Loader::pageTypeControllerPath() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 294

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::set() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 65

Deprecated: Non-static method Loader::model() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 268

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/collection_types.php on line 33

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::get() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Non-static method Loader::db() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method Cache::set() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/models/package.php on line 65

Deprecated: Non-static method Loader::helper() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/controller.php on line 45

Deprecated: Non-static method Object::camelcase() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/loader.php on line 188

Strict Standards: Non-static method Events::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/events.php on line 126

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/dispatcher.php:19) in /home/ftzconci/public_html/concrete/libraries/view.php on line 725

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Handa Island Skua Project :: Arctic Skua
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Arctic Skua


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Arctic skuas are the smaller but faster and more aerodynamic cousins of the Great skua.

Artic skua - photo by Rebecca GreenWhile the large and noisy Great skuas can impress with their strength and forceful presence, Arctic skuas are unparalleled in their speed and agility in the air, traits which make them so successful at harrying other birds such as guillemots and kittiwakes to drop the food they are carrying as they race over the sea back towards their breeding ledge.

To emphasise the amazing flying ability - and courage - of the Arctic skua, we have seen Arctic skuas chasing a peregrine falcon over more than a kilometre.


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Arctic skuas, like Great skuas, breed in back-to-back territories on the moorland of Handa, though their territories are smaller, usually with a diameter of between 10 and 20m.

As long as the colony is of a reasonable size, the breeding birds' proximity to each other enables them to engage in cooperative defence against predators, where several adults from different territories will join forces to repel any intruder (such as a bonxie, or a Great black-backed gull) which is trying to make a meal of either their eggs or chicks.

What results is often an amazing and cacophonous spectacle of aerial dog-fighting.

However, the Arctic skua is in decline across Britain (go to the conservation page for more details), and the Handa colony is no exception.

Here we have been able to show that predation of newly fledged and weak-flying Arctic skuas, while they are still on the island in August each year, is a major factor limiting expansion of the breeding population.  


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